The Analysis of a Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
Cover of GJSD Vol. 2, Issue 2.


Central Asia

How to Cite

Pocstar, M. (2022). The Analysis of a Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC): The Status of Female Leadership in Higher Education in Kazakhstan . GILE Journal of Skills Development, 2(2), 36–50.


This is a pilot study written prior to undertaking a doctoral dissertation on the state of female leadership in Kazakhstan. The paper analyses variables from the Survey of Adult Skills of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). The data for PIAAC was collected in 2017 in Kazakhstan. The author of this study used publicly available databases. This study aims to understand who occupies leadership positions in Kazakhstan and what variables influence the people who become leaders. Statistical tests were conducted to estimate how gender, skills, level of education, and family background influence leadership. Research results indicate that instead of gender, literacy, numeracy, and ICT skills are important for leadership. The country’s statistics show that in comparison to other occupations, the number of female leaders is relatively high in the education sector. Therefore, the results of this pilot study are being expanded into more detailed and substantial doctoral research, analysing factors that influence female leadership in the higher education of Kazakhstan. This empirical research adds findings to existing data of the Central Asian context, particularly in gender studies and leadership fields.


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