This paper reviews historic and current definitions of skill as a concept, as well as frameworks that have been applied to analyse levels of skills development across the academic and professional spectrum. The author proposes a 6-level chart of skill development based on the “can-do descriptors” approach by CEFR, also known as the ability assessment approach, for further discussion, development, and application. The proposed chart is based on six levels. These are organized into two Entry levels, two Operational Use levels and two Strategic Vision levels. Further debate on the typology of skills by Deloitte, LinkedIn Research and World Economic Forum is presented as of 2020 documentation. Its dynamic manner of paradigms changing the importance of a wide array of skills (alternatively denominated as employability skills, soft skills and/or 21st Century skills) are analysed, both for educators and employers.
Allen, J. P., & van der Velden, R. K. W. (2005). The role of self-assessment in measuring skills. ROA. REFLEX Working Paper Series No. 2ROA External Reports. Retrieved 24.12.2020 from https://cris.maastrichtuniversity.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/4047131/guid-3b801703-f49b-46e5-bd15-adfe7eef189e-ASSET1.0.pdf)
Anderson, Lorin W., David R. Krathwohl, and Benjamin S. Bloom (2001). A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: a Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives / Editors, Lorin W. Anderson, David Krathwohl; Contributors, Peter W. Airasian ... (et al.). Complete ed. New York: Longman. Print.
Bersin, J. (2017). Catch the wave: The 21st Centurycareer, Deloitte Review 21, Deloitte University Press, July 31, 2017.
Bersin, J. (2019). LinkedIn Skills Assessments: A Disruptive and Strategic Move. Retrieved 20.12.2020 from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/linkedin-skills-assessments-disruptive-strategic-move-josh-bersin/
Bennett, N., Dunne, E., & Carré, C. (2000). Skills Development in Higher Education and Employment. Taylor & Francis, Inc., 7625 Empire Dr., Florence, KY 41042.
Burch, N. (1970). The four stages for learning any new skill. Gordon Training International, CA.
Chanler, M. (2019). 2019 Global talent trends: the four trends transforming your workplace. Retrieved 26.12.2020 from https://app.box.com/s/c5scskbsz9q6lb0hqb7euqeb4fr8m0bl/file/388525098383
Council of Europe, Council for Cultural Co-operation. Education Committee. Modern Languages Division. (2001). Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge University Press.
Council of Europe (2018). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Companion volume with new descriptors. https://rm.coe.int/cefr-companion-volume-with-new-descriptors-2018/1680787989.
Crossman, E. R. F. W. (1960). “Automation and Skill”, D.S.I.R. Problems of Progress in Industry No. 9, H.M.S.O., London.
Deloitte (2016). Talent for survival: Essential skills for humans working in the machine age, https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/uk/Documents/Growth/deloitte-uk-talent-for-survival-report.pdf.
Dweck, C. S. (2009). Mindsets: Developing talent through a growth mindset. Olympic Coach, 21(1), 4-7.
Green, F (2011) What is Skill? An Interdisciplinary Synthesis. Centre for Learning and Life Chances in Knowledge Economies and Societies Retrieved Dec 06, 2020 from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264874441_What_is_Skill_An_Inter-Disciplinary_Synthesis.
Hagel, J., Schwartz, J., & Bersin, J. (2017). Navigating the future of work. Deloitte Rev, 21, 27-45.
Kokcharov, Igor (2015). Hierarchy of Skills, Ženeva, Švajcarska. Postavljeno. Retrieved 21.12.2020 from http://www.slideshare.net/igorkokcharov/kokcharov-skillpyramid2015
LinkedIn Research (2019). Global Talent Trends 2019: The 4 ideas changing the way we work. LinkedIn Talent Solutions Retrieved 27.12.2020 from https://business.linkedin.com/talent-solutions/resources/talent-strategy/global-talent-trends-2019
Loures, E. R., Liao, Y., & Consiglieri J. O. (2017). A classification and summarization method for analysis of research activities in an academic faculty. Production, 27 (spe), e20162163. Retrieved 22.12.2020 from http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6513.216316
Makhachashvili, R., Semenist, I. & Bakhtina, A. (2020). Digital Skills Development and ICT Tools for final Qualification assessment: Survey study for students and staff of European and Oriental Philology programs. Open Educational E-Environment of Modern University, (9), s. 54–68. https://doi.org/10.28925/2414-0325.2020.9.5
Shtaltovna, Y. (2018). The pursuit of democratization in education-knowing where to go. Concept analysis for the correct use of the term democratization of education. Electronic scientific professional publication Open Educational E-Environment (4), p. 74–82. https://doi.org/10.28925/2414-0325.2018.4.7482
Welford A.T. (1980). The Concept of Skill and Its Application to Social Performance. In: Singleton W.T., Spurgeon P., Stammers R.B. (eds) The Analysis of Social Skill. NATO Conference Series, vol 11. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-3623-5_2
World Economic Forum (2015). New vision for education: Unlocking the potential of technology. Vancouver, BC: British Columbia Teachers' Federation.
World Economic Forum (2020). The future of jobs report 2020. World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2021 Yuliya Shtaltovna