Proposal for an assessment model of the congruence between people and work skills

Main Article Content

Jaisso Vautero


Rapid changes in the skill set needed in a profession make it easier to differentiate jobs and employment opportunities by the skills required. From this point of view, people's point of contact with organisations is their skills, not professions. Therefore, what matters is people's skills, competencies needed to get the job done, and people's potential in terms of skills development. In this sense, the present proposal aims to establish a framework to identify congruences between the skills mastered by people and the necessary skills in the work context and how to bridge the gap between them. For this purpose, a set of propositions are made: i) competences are the people’s point of contact with the organisation; ii) skills do not shape people, people shape their skills, iii) professions can be defined through associated skills, iv) people more easily acquire skills that are closer to those they already possess. Based on these premises, a skills model is postulated, which can be named Person-delivery Environment-work Context (PEC). This model is interested in the fluidity of a person's skills and the autonomy over the development of these skills. To put it into practice, this model needs the following five steps: i) identify the most common skills in the labour market, ii) classify the skills identified to make exploration possible, iii) identify the representation and frequency of a given skill in each profession and the labour market, iv) create a methodology for identifying and measuring personal skills, v) create a way to calculate proximity between the person's competences (P) and the work context (C). In the proposed model, there are two observable data: the existence of competence in the universe of the work context and the presence of competence in a person. It is expected that this model will make possible the identification of congruences between people and organisations and the skill development possibilities for a person. Some limitations can be listed, but the main one is that people and work are reduced to skills in this model. However, its applications can only be thought of as part of a broader career development process that considers people and their potential and the means of developing them, obtaining satisfaction, and having decent living and working conditions.

Article Details

How to Cite
Vautero, J. (2022). Proposal for an assessment model of the congruence between people and work skills. GiLE Journal of Skills Development, 2(1), 44–60.
Research Articles
Share |


Abreu, L. C., Oliveira, M. A., Carvalho, T. D., Martins, S. R., Gallo, P. R., & Reis, A. O. A. (2010). Piaget's genetic epistemology and constructivism. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 20(2), 361-366.

European Commission, Directorate-General for Education, Youth, Sport and Culture, Andersen, T., Shapiro Futures, H., & Nedergaard Larsen, K. (2021). A European approach to micro-credentials: output of the micro-credentials higher education consultation group: final report, Publications Office.

Ananiadou, K., & Claro, M. (2009). 21st Century Skills and Competences for New Millennium Learners in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Papers, 41.

Armstron, M. (2006). Human Resource Management Practice. 10th Edition. Kogan Page.

Bandura, A. (2006). Toward a Psychology of Human Agency. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 164–180.

Binkley, M., Erstad, O., Herman, J., Raizen, S., Ripley, M., Miller-Ricci, M., & Rumble, M. (2012). Defining Twenty-First Century Skills. In: P. Griffin, B. McGaw, & E. Care (Eds.), Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills. Springer.

Botti, S. H., & Rego, S. (2008). Preceptor, supervisor, tutor and mentor: what are their roles? Revista Brasileira de Educação Médica, 32(3), 363-373.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The Competent Manager. John Wiley & Sons.

Bruner, J. (1983). Savoir faire, savoir dire: le developpement de l’énfant. (6th Edition). PUF.

Brynjolfsson, E., & McAfee, A. (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies (1st Edition). W. W. Norton & Company.

Cheryl, L. (2002). enGauge 21st Century Skills: Literacy in the Digital Age. North Central Regional Educational Lab.

Burrus, J., Jackson, T., Xi, N., & Steinberg, J. (2013). Identifying the most important 21st century workforce competencies: An analysis of the occupational information network (O* Net). ETS Research Report Series, 2013(2), 1–55.

Dawis, R. (1994). The theory of work adjustment as convergent theory. In M. L. Savikas & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Convergence in career development theories: Implications for science and practice (pp. 33–43). CPP Books.

Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. University of Minnesota Press.

Dewinne R. T. F., Overton T. D., & Schneider, L. J. (1978). Types Produce Types-Especially Fathers. Journal of Vocational Behavior 12, 140-144.

Dickerson, A., & Wilson, R. (2012). Developing occupational skills profiles for Singapore: A methodological proposal. Singapore: Civil Service College; Institute for Adult Learning

Doreian, P. (2017). Networks in Social Psychology, Beginning with Kurt Lewin. In R. Alhajj, & J. Rokne (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining. Springer.

Etzel, J. M., Holland, J., & Nagy, G. (2021). The internal and external validity of the latent vocational interest circumplex: Structure, relationships with self-concepts, and robustness against item-order effects. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 124, 103520.

European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations – ESCO (2021). Tools & Resources.

European Classification of Skills/Competences, Qualification and Occupation – ESCO (2020). Esco v1.0.8.

Fernandes, B. (2013). Gestão Estratégica de Pessoas com Foco em Competência. Elsevier.

Fernández-Sanz, L., Goméz-Pérez, J., & Castillo-Martínez, A. (2017). e-Skills Match: A framework for mapping and integrating the main skills, knowledge and competence standards and models for ICT occupations. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 51, 30-42.

Finegold, D., & Notabartolo, A. S. (2010). 21st-Century Competencies and Their Impact: An Interdisciplinary Literature Review Transforming the US Workforce Development System. Labor and Employment Relations Association.

Fleury, M. T., & Fleury, A. (2001). Building the concept of competence Revista de Administração Contemporânea, 5, 183-196.

Grandy, T. G., & Stahmann, R. F. (1974). Types Produce Types: An Examination of Personality Development using Holland’s Theory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 5, 231-239.

Greenhill, V. (2009). P21 framework definitions document.

Gottfredson, G. (2005). Career Development in Organizations. In W. B. Walsh, & M. L. Savickas (Eds.), Handbook of Vocational Psychology: Theory, Research, and Practice. 3rd Edition. (pp. 297-318). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hajian, S. (2019). Transfer of Learning and Teaching: A Review of Transfer Theories and Effective Instructional Practices. IAFOR Journal of Education, 7(1), 93-111.

Harren, V. A. (1979). A model of career decision-making for college student. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 119–133.

Hesketh, B., & Griffin, B. (2005). Work adjustment. In W. B. Walsh, & M. L. Savickas (Eds.), Handbook of vocational psychology. 3rd Edition. (pp. 245-266). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Hesketh, B., & Griffin, B. (2006). Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In J. H. Greenhaus, & G. A. Callanan (Eds.), Encyclopedia of career development (pp. 507-510). SAGE Publications.

Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 6, 35–45.

Holland, J. L. (1975) Técnica de la elección vocacional: tipos de personalidad y modelos ambientales. Editorial Trillas.

Holland, J. L. (1992). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments. 2nd Edition. Psychological Assessment.

Horváth, B., & Molnár, B. (2020, Jun 17-21). Dynamic process modeling of micro-credentials. [Paper presentation]. Developments in Computer Science, Budapest, Hungary.

ILO- International Labour Organization (2012). International Standard Classification of Occupations: ISCO-08.


ILO- International Labour Organization (2016). ISCO-08 Structure, index correspondence with ISCO-88.

ILO- International Labour Organization (2020). The feasibility of using big data in anticipating and matching skills needs


INE - Instituto Nacional de Estatística (2010). Classificação Portuguesa das Profissões. INE.

Ishitani, T. T. (2010). Exploring the effects of congruence and Holland's personality codes on job satisfaction: An application of hierarchical linear modeling techniques. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 16–24.

Jang, H. Identifying 21st Century STEM Competencies Using Workplace Data. J Sci Educ Technol, 25(2016), 284–301.

Kautz, T., Heckman, J. J., Diris, R., ter Weel, B., & Borghans, L. (2014). Fostering and Measuring Skills: Improving Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Skills to Promote Lifetime Success, IZA Discussion Papers, Nº 8696, Institute for the Study of Labor.

Le boterf, G. (1995). De la compétence - essai sur un attracteur étrange. Tirage.

Lent, R. W. (2013). Social cognitive career theory. In. S. D. Brown, & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career development and counseling: Putting theory and research to work. 2nd Edition. (pp. 115-146). Wiley.

Lent, R. W., & Brown, S. D, (2013). Social cognitive model of career self-management: Toward a unifying view of adaptive career behavior across the life span. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 557-568.

Lent, R. W., Brown, S. D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Towards a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interests, choice and performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45(1), 79-122.

Leung, S. A. (2008). The big five career theories. In J. A. Athanasou, & R. Van Esbroeck (Eds.), International handbook of career guidance (pp. 115-132). Springer Science.

Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology. McGraw-Hill.

Lewin, K. (1973). Principio de Psicología Topológica. Cultrix.

Long, H. B., McCrary, K., & Ackerman, S. (1979). Adult Cognition: Piagetian Based Research Findings. Adult Education, 30(1), 3–18.

LinkedIn (2020). Find new jobs with the skills you already have.

Maioli, M. C. (2014). Inferência bayesiana como um procedimento de decisão. (Tese de Mestrado, Universidade de Campinas).

McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for "intelligence." American Psychologist, 28(1), 1–14.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Competence. In dictionary.

Miller-Tiedeman, A., & Tiedeman, D. V. (1985). Educating to advance the human career during the 1980s and beyond. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 34, 15–30.

Mitchell, L. K., & Krumboltz, J. D. (1996). Krumboltz’s learning theory of career choice and counselling. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development. 3rd Edition. (pp. 233–280). Jossey-Bass.

Javed, M. S, Athar, M. R., & Saboor, A. (2019). Development of a twenty-first century skills scale for agri varsities. Cogent Business & Management, 6(1).

McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for "intelligence." American Psychologist, 28(1), 1–14.

Nagy, G., Brunner, M., Lüdtke, O., & Greiff, S. (2017). Extension Procedures for Confirmatory Factor Analysis, The Journal of Experimental Education, 85(4), 574-596

National Center for O*NET Development. (2021). O*NET OnLine.

Nauta, M. M. (2010). The development, evolution, and status of Holland’s theory of vocational personalities: Reflections and future directions for counseling psychology. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(1), 11–22.

OECD - Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2019). Future of Education and Skills 2030 - OECD Learning Compass 2030: A Series of Concept Notes.


OECD - Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2016). The Survey of Adult Skills: Reader’s Companion 2nd Edition. OECD Skills Studies, OECD Publishing.

Oren, L., Caduri, A., & Tziner, A. (2013). Intergenerational occupational transmission: Do offsprings walk in the footsteps of their moms or their papas, or both? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 83(3), 551–560.

Pádua, G. L. D. (2009). A epis-temologia genética de Jean Piaget. Revista FACEVV, 1(2), 22-35.

Parsons, T. (1939). The Professions and Social Structure. Social Forces, 17(4), 457–467.

Patton, W. (2005). A postmodern approach to career education: What does it look like? Perspectives in Education, 23(2), 21-28.

Patton, W., & McMahon, M. (2014). Career development and systems theory: Connecting theory and practice. 3rd Edition. Sense Publishers.

Salomon, G., & Perkins, D. N. (1989). Rocky roads to transfer: Rethinking mechanisms of a neglected phenomenon. Educational Psychologist, 24(2), 113–142.

Prediger, D. J. (1982). Dimensions underlying Holland's hexagon: Missing link between interests and occupations? Journal of Vocational Behavior, 21(3), 259–287.


Piaget, J. (1971). The theory of stages in cognitive development. In D. R. Green, M. P. Ford, & G. B. Flamer (Ed.), Measurement and Piaget. McGraw-Hill.

Rankin, N. (2002). Raising performance through people: the ninth competency survey, Competency & Emotional Intelligence, 2–21.

Reardon, R. C., & Lenz, J. G. (1999). Holland’s Theory and Career Assessment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, 102–113.

Rodrigues, M. L. (2002). Sociologia das Profissões. 2nd Edition. Celta.

Saito, H., Katahira, K., Okanoya, K., & Okada, M. (2014). Bayesian deterministic decision making: a normative account of the operant matching law and heavy-tailed reward history dependency of choices. Front Comput Neurosci. 8, 18.

Savickas, M. L. (2002). Career construction: A developmental theory of vocational behavior. In D. Brown, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development. 4th Edition. (pp. 149-205). Jossey Bass.

Savickas, M. L., Nota, L., Rossier, J., Dauwalder, J. P., Duarte, M. E., Guicharad, J., Soresi, S., VanEsbroeck R., & VanVianen, A. E. M. (2009). Life designing: A paradigm for career construction in the 21st century. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 239–250.

Scans. (1991). What work requires of schools: A scans report for America 2000. US Department of Labor.

Shtaltovna, Y. (2021). Can a Skill be Measured or Assessed? 6-Level Skills Development Approach to Skill Assessment. GiLE Journal of Skills Development, 1(1), 12–24.

Spencer, L. M., & Spencer, S. M. (1993). Competence at work: Models for superior performance. Wiley.

Swanson J. L., & Schneider, M. (2013). Minnesota theory of work adjustment. In S. D. Brown, & R. W. Lent (Eds.), Career Development and Counseling: Putting Theory and Research to Work. 2nd Edition. (pp. 29–54). John Wiley & Sons.

Su, W., Zhang, M., & Nisar, T. (2015). An integrative model for measuring graduates’ employability skills—A study in China. Cogent Business & Management, 2 (1), 1060729.

Watts, A. G. (1996). Toward a policy of lifelong career development: A translantic perspective. The Career Development Quarterly, 45(1), 41-53.

Zarifian, P. (1999). Objectif compétence. Liaisons.